In the context of addressing climate change and related risks, the term ‘mainstreaming’ is used to describe the integration of climate change adaptation into ongoing and new development policies, plans, and strategies, including laws and regulations (e.g. EIA requirements). ‘Mainstreaming’ aims at enhancing the effectiveness, efficiency, and longevity of initiatives by reducing climate-related risks, simultaneously contributing towards sustainable development and improved quality of life. Mainstreaming climate resilience is the iterative process of integrating considerations of climate change into policy making, budgeting, implementation and monitoring process at national, sector and subnational levels. It is a multi-year, multi-stakeholder, iterative process which entails working with a range of government and non-government actors, and other actors involved in the development field. (UNDP 2011)

Enablers for Resilience Planning

  • Policy and mandate at the national and state level
  • Integration of climate agenda with city development agenda
  • Institutionalization of urban climate resilience planning
  • Strong political leadership at local and state level
  • Use and involvement of local expertise to generate context-specific locally driven solutions
  • Capacity building and awareness generation to generate momentum and to facilitate action at all levels
  • Access to knowledge about climate variability and change
  • Data management to facilitate decision making

Mechanism for Mainstreaming

Institutional Mechanisms

  • Establishing a city level resilience officer in the urban local body
  • Establishing a Climate Change or Sustainability Department under the State government departments
  • Institutionalising multi-stakeholder groups at the city level
  • Building capacity of all types of stakeholders such as policy makers, government officials, students, practitioners, and communities

Policy and Mandates

  • Formulating a State urban climate resilience policy or action plan

Capacity Building at All Levels

  • Dedicated programs on urban resilience for government officials, policy makers, students, practitioners and communities


  • United Nations Development Programme (2011). Paving the Way for Climate-Resilient Infrastructure: Guidance for Practitioners and Planners. New York, New York: United Nations Development Programme. Available here
  • UNDP (2005). Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change. Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures, Ed. Bo Lim, Erika Spanger-Siegfried, Co-authors Ian Burton, Elizabeth Malone, Saleemul Huq. Available here

Further information please go to TERI website

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